Nutr Diabetes. 2021 Nov 25;11(1):36. doi: 10.1038/s41387-021-00178-9.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism and extensive hemodynamic adjustments occur during normal pregnancy. The presence of maternal obesity imposes an overload to these physiological adaptations that may result in increased risk for the development of cardiometabolic complications during and after pregnancy. The aim of this study is to describe total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), glucose, and arterial blood pressure (BP) trajectories and to analyze the association of these cardiometabolic risk indicators during pregnancy with pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) and monthly gestational weight gain (MGWG).
SUBJECTS/METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant women was conducted in Mexico City. Monthly samples of blood were taken during clinical follow-up and biochemical and blood pressure were measured during each visit. Adjusted linear mixed-effect regression models were fit to describe the trajectories of these biomarkers during pregnancy and to analyze the association with pBMI and MGWG.
RESULTS: Seven hundred and twenty women were included of which 16.6% had pre-gestational obesity, 33.2% had pre-gestational overweight, 45.8% had normal pBMI and 4.4% had pre-gestational underweight. Women with pre-gestational obesity had higher lipids concentrations in the beginning of pregnancy (TC: [Formula: see text] = 33.08, p = 0.010; TG: [Formula: see text] = 31.29, p = <0.001) but the concentrations increased less than in women with normal pBMI (TC: [Formula: see text] = -14.18, p = 0.001; TG: [Formula: see text] = -5.42, p < 0.001). By the end of pregnancy, women with pre-gestational obesity had lower concentrations of lipids than women with normal pBMI. By contrast, women with pre-gestational obesity had higher glucose concentrations and higher BP levels than women with normal pBMI over pregnancy.
CONCLUSIONS: pBMI is differentially associated with longitudinal trajectories of maternal biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk. MGWG did not significantly affect the biochemical indicators or BP trajectories. Our results suggest that pBMI is more relevant to predicting adverse cardiometabolic markers trajectories during pregnancy than MGWG.