Environ Res. 2023 Jul 19;236(Pt 1):116706. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.116706. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on children and adults have linked toxicants from plastics and personal care products to metabolic disruption. Yet, the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk during early and mid-adolescence is unclear.
METHODS: To examine the links between exposure to EDCs and MetS risk and its components, cross-sectional data from 344 Mexican youth in early-to-mid adolescence (10-17 years) were analyzed. Urinary biomarker concentrations of phthalates, phenol, and paraben analytes were measured from a single spot urine sample collected in 2015; study personnel obtained anthropometric and metabolic measures. We examined associations between summary phthalates and metabolites, phenol, and paraben analytes with MetS risk z-scores using linear regression, adjusted for specific gravity, sex, age, pubertal status, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity level, and screen time. As a secondary aim, mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate the role of hormones in the association between summary phthalates with lipids and MetS risk z-scores.
RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 13.2 (1.9) years, and 50.9% were female. Sex-stratified analyses revealed associations between summary phthalates and lipids ratio z-scores, including Σ DEHP [β = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.37; p < 0.01)], phthalates from plastic sources (Σ Plastic) [β = 0.22 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.39; p < 0.01)], anti-androgenic phthalates (Σ AA) [β = 0.22 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.39; p < 0.01)], and individual phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MEOHP, and MECPP) among males. Among females, BPA [β = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.44; p < 0.05)] was positively associated with lipids ratio z-score and one phenol (2,5 DCP) [β = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.18); p < 0.05)] was associated with increased waist circumference z-score. Results showed no evidence of mediation by hormone concentrations in the association between summary phthalates with lipids ratio or MetS risk z-scores.
CONCLUSION: Higher EDC exposure was positively associated with serum lipids during adolescence, particularly among males.