Fertil Steril. 2023 Dec;120(6):1138-1149. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2023.10.008. Epub 2023 Oct 11.
Modifiable factors, such as environmental exposures, can impact human fertility. The objective of this review is to summarize the potential effects of exposure to important endocrine-disrupting chemicals on male reproductive health. Most experimental and animal data demonstrate strong evidence for the negative effects of exposure to phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances on male reproductive health. Although evidence of negative associations in humans was overall strong for phthalates and pesticides, limited and inconclusive relationships were found for the other examined chemical biomarkers. Reasons for the discrepancies in results include but are not limited to, differences in study populations, exposure concentrations, number of samples collected, sample sizes, study design, and residual confounding. Additional studies are needed, particularly for newer phenols and perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, given the scarce literature on the topic and increasing exposures over time.