Sci Total Environ. 2020 Mar 15;708:134719. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134719. Epub 2019 Oct 31.
BACKGROUND: Phenols and parabens are common additives to consumer products. There is evidence of adverse birth outcomes in association with prenatal exposure to these chemicals, in addition to psychosocial factors. We previously reported an increase in gestational length with bisphenol-A, methylparaben and propylparaben, and a decrease in gestational length with triclocarban.
OBJECTIVES: We examined the modifying effect of psychosocial stress on the association between chemicals and gestational length in up to 752 women among a pregnancy cohort study.
METHODS: Urinary biomarkers were measured at up to three time points in pregnancy. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to investigate the association between gestational length and the interaction between average exposure biomarkers and LES. Multiple linear regression models regressing the exposure biomarkers in relation to gestational length were also stratified by LES, Negative LES, and Positive LES, based on the subjective ratings of events. Results were transformed into the change in gestational length for an inter-quartile-range difference in the exposure.
RESULTS: Of the four psychosocial stress measures, only the life events score (LES) was a significant modifier. Associations between triclocarban, bisphenol-S, methyl- and propylparaben in relation to gestational length were stronger among women with negative Total LES scores. Among women with negative Total LES scores, bisphenol-S and triclocarban were associated with a 3-5 day decrease in gestational length [(-3.15; 95% CI: -6.06, -0.24); (-4.68; 95% CI: -8.47, -0.89)], whereas methylparaben and propylparaben were associated with a 2-3 day increase in gestational length [(2.21; 95% CI: 0.02, 4.40); (2.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 5.26)]. Significant interactions were driven by negative life events, but the association with triclocarban was driven by few positive life events.
CONCLUSIONS: Associations between exposure biomarkers and gestational length were stronger in the presence of negative life events. This provides evidence that stress makes the body more vulnerable to chemical exposure.