J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2022 May;32(3):384-391. doi: 10.1038/s41370-022-00410-3. Epub 2022 Jan 24.
BACKGROUND: Phthalates have been reported to alter circulating lipid concentrations in animals, and investigation of these associations in humans will provide greater understanding of potential mechanisms for health outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between phthalate metabolite biomarkers and lipidomic profiles among pregnant women (n = 99) in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort.
METHODS: We measured 19 urinary phthalate metabolites during 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Lipidomic profiles were identified from plasma samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics. Relationships between phthalate metabolites and lipid profiles were estimated using compound-by-compound comparisons in multiple linear regression and dimension reduction techniques. We derived sums for each lipid class and sub-class (saturated, mono-unsaturated, polyunsaturated) which were then regressed on phthalate metabolites. Associations were adjusted for false discovery.
RESULTS: After controlling for multiple comparisons, 33 phthalate-lipid associations were identified (False discovery rate adjusted p value < 0.05), and diacylglycerol 40:7 and plasmenyl-phosphatidylcholine 35:1 were the most strongly associated with multiple phthalate metabolites. Metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dibutyl phthalates, and diisobutyl phthalate were associated with increased ceramides, lysophosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and triacylglycerols, particularly those containing saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acid chains.
SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of associations between lipidomic markers and phthalate metabolites during pregnancy will yield mechanistic insight for maternal and child health outcomes.
IMPACT: This study leverages emerging technology to evaluate lipidome-wide signatures of phthalate exposure during pregnancy. The greatest lipid signatures of phthalate exposure were observed for diacylglycerol 40:7 and plasmenyl-phosphatidylcholine 35:1. Polymerized glycerides are important for energy production and regulated through hormone signaling, while plasmenyl-phosphatidylcholines have been implicated in membrane dynamics and important for cell-to-cell signaling. Characterization of these mechanisms are relevant for informing the etiology of maternal and children’s health outcomes.