BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and diet quality are risk factors for systemic inflammation, which is associated with preterm birth (PTB). PM(10) and a pro-inflammatory diet (assessed by the Dietary Inflammatory Index [DII®]) have been individually evaluated as causes of PTB and differences by offspring sex have been reported for the DII. However, additional studies are needed to evaluate joint effects of these associations to inform intervention efforts.