Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Nov 23;20(23):7104. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20237104.


Phthalate use and the concentrations of their metabolites in humans vary by geographic region, race, ethnicity, sex, product use and other factors. Exposure during pregnancy may be associated with detrimental reproductive and developmental outcomes. No studies have evaluated the predictors of exposure to a wide range of phthalate metabolites in a large, diverse population. We examined the determinants of phthalate metabolites in a cohort of racially/ethnically diverse nulliparous pregnant women. We report on urinary metabolites of nine parent phthalates or replacement compounds-Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), D-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), Di-n/i-butyl phthalate (DnBP), Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from urine collected up to three times from 953 women enrolled in the Nulliparous Mothers To Be Study. Phthalate metabolites were adjusted for specific gravity. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to identify the predictors of each metabolite. Overall predictors include age, race and ethnicity, education, BMI and clinical site of care. Women who were Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic or Asian, obese or had lower levels of education had higher concentrations of selected metabolites. These findings indicate exposure patterns that require policies to reduce exposure in specific subgroups.

PMID:38063534 | PMC:PMC10706567 | DOI:10.3390/ijerph20237104