Environ Res. 2019 Dec;179(Pt A):108756. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108756. Epub 2019 Sep 23.


BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely detected among U.S. pregnant women. OPEs, some of which are present in nail polish, have been associated with adverse reproductive health outcomes. More research is needed to investigate associations with OPEs and personal care products (PCP) use.

METHODS: Pregnant women (18-40 years) were recruited from two hospitals and five prenatal clinics in Northern Puerto Rico (n = 148 women) between 2011 and 2015. Concentrations of bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEtP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCPP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), di-benzyl phosphate (DBzP), di-cresyl phosphate (DCP), DPHP, and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA) were measured twice during pregnancy. Participants completed questionnaires on PCP and household products (HP) use. Associations among products and metabolite concentrations (n = 296 observations) were assessed using linear mixed models.

RESULTS: BCEtP, BCPP, BDCPP and DPHP were detected frequently (≥77%). Correlations among metabolites (0.16 ≤ r ≤ 0.35) and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (0.03 ≤ ICC≤0.34) were weak-to-moderate. Suntan lotion was associated with a 110% increase in BDCPP. DPHP increased with perfume (51%) and nail polish (49%) use. BCPP increased 46% with pesticide use in home.

CONCLUSION: Biomarkers of OPEs were often detected among pregnant women. Associations with PCP and HP use suggest OPEs may be used in such products, specifically in perfume and nail polish. Further investigation into these products is warranted.

PMID:31574449 | PMC:PMC6905189 | DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2019.108756