Environ Int. 2024 May;187:108678. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2024.108678. Epub 2024 Apr 20.


BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure may contribute to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E), but epidemiologic studies are lacking.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of pregnancy phthalate exposure with development of PE/E and HDP.

METHODS: Using data from 3,430 participants in eight Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program cohorts (enrolled from 1999 to 2019), we quantified concentrations of 13 phthalate metabolites (8 measured in all cohorts, 13 in a subset of four cohorts) in urine samples collected at least once during pregnancy. We operationalized outcomes as PE/E and composite HDP (PE/E and/or gestational hypertension). After correcting phthalate metabolite concentrations for urinary dilution, we evaluated covariate-adjusted associations of individual phthalates with odds of PE/E or composite HDP via generalized estimating equations, and the phthalate mixture via quantile-based g-computation. We also explored effect measure modification by fetal sex using stratified models. Effect estimates are reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, a doubling of mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and of mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) concentrations was associated with higher odds of PE/E as well as composite HDP, with somewhat larger associations for PE/E. For example, a doubling of MCPP was associated with 1.12 times the odds of PE/E (95%CI 1.00, 1.24) and 1.02 times the odds of composite HDP (95%CI 1.00, 1.05). A quartile increase in the phthalate mixture was associated with 1.27 times the odds of PE/E (95%CI 0.94, 1.70). A doubling of mono-carboxy isononyl phthalate (MCiNP) and of mono-carboxy isooctyl phthalate (MCiOP) concentrations were associated with 1.08 (95%CI 1.00, 1.17) and 1.11 (95%CI 1.03, 1.19) times the odds of PE/E. Effect estimates for PE/E were generally larger among pregnancies carrying female fetuses.

DISCUSSION: In this study, multiple phthalates were associated with higher odds of PE/E and HDP. Estimates were precise and some were low in magnitude. Interventions to reduce phthalate exposures during pregnancy may help mitigate risk of these conditions.

PMID:38696977 | DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2024.108678