Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2023 May;228(5):576.e1-576.e22. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.11.1282. Epub 2022 Nov 15.
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been associated with an increased risk of delivering before term. However, most studies testing this hypothesis have been conducted in racially and demographically homogenous study populations, which do not reflect the diversity within the United States.
OBJECTIVE: We leveraged 4 cohorts participating in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes Program to conduct the largest study to date examining biomarkers of oxidative stress and preterm birth (N=1916). Furthermore, we hypothesized that elevated oxidative stress would be associated with higher odds of preterm birth, particularly preterm birth of spontaneous origin.
STUDY DESIGN: This study was a pooled analysis and meta-analysis of 4 birth cohorts spanning multiple geographic regions in the mainland United States and Puerto Rico (208 preterm births and 1708 full-term births). Of note, 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (F2-IsoP-M; the major 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α metabolite), and prostaglandin-F2α were measured in urine samples obtained during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between averaged biomarker concentrations for each participant and all preterm births, spontaneous preterm births, nonspontaneous preterm births (births of medically indicated or unknown origin), and categories of preterm birth (early, moderate, and late). Individual oxidative stress biomarkers were examined in separate models.
RESULTS: Approximately 11% of our analytical sample was born before term. Relative to full-term births, an interquartile range increase in averaged concentrations of F2-IsoP-M was associated with higher odds of all preterm births (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.51), with a stronger association observed for spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.90). An interquartile range increase in averaged concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α was similarly associated with higher odds of all preterm births (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.50). The results from our meta-analysis were similar to those from the pooled combined cohort analysis.
CONCLUSION: Here, oxidative stress, as measured by 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α, F2-IsoP-M, and prostaglandin-F2α in urine, was associated with increased odds of preterm birth, particularly preterm birth of spontaneous origin and delivery before 34 completed weeks of gestation.