Sci Total Environ. 2024 Apr 15;921:170889. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170889. Epub 2024 Feb 13.


Exposure to phenols and parabens may contribute to increased maternal inflammation and adverse birth outcomes, but these effects are not well-studied in humans. This study aimed to investigate relationships between concentrations of 8 phenols and 4 parabens with 6 inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP); matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, and 9; intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) measured at two time points in pregnancy in the PROTECT birth cohort in Puerto Rico. Linear mixed models were used, adjusting for covariates of interest. Results are expressed as the percent change in outcome per interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. Particularly among phenols, numerous significant negative associations were found, for example, between benzophenone-3 and CRP (-11.21 %, 95 % CI: -17.82, -4.07) and triclocarban and MMP2 (-9.87 %, 95 % CI: -14.05, -5.5). However, significant positive associations were also detected, for instance, between bisphenol-A (BPA) and CRP (9.77 %, 95 % CI: 0.67, 19.68) and methyl-paraben and MMP1 (10.78 %, 95 % CI: 2.17, 20.11). Significant interactions with female fetal sex and the later study visit (at 24-28 weeks gestation) showed more positive associations compared to male fetal sex and the earlier study visit (16-20 weeks gestation). Our results suggest that phenols and parabens may disrupt inflammatory processes pertaining to uterine remodeling and endothelial function, with important implications for pregnancy outcomes. More research is needed to further understand maternal inflammatory status in an effort to improve reproductive and developmental outcomes.

PMID:38360311 | DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170889