The proposed Community Action to Promote Healthy Environments (CA-PHE) builds on, and substantially extends, over 15 years of community-based participatory research by the involved partners to understand and address issues of air pollution and health in Detroit. Specifically, CA-PHE will engage community, academic and public health practice partners in research that will culminate in the development and implementation of a public health action plan that reduces exposure to air pollutants, mitigates adverse health effects, and provides additional health and environmental benefits. CA-PHE will increase knowledge about factors influencing exposure to air pollution and health effects, translate findings into a public health action plan, and implement campaigns, interventions and policies to reduce pollutant exposure and mitigate adverse health impacts. It will improve health outcomes and quality of life in vulnerable communities disproportionately at risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disease. The proposed project has five specific aims: Specific Aim 1 : Strengthen, support and enhance the capacity of the community, academic and practice partners engaged in CA-PHE to work effectively together, and to conduct, understand and communicate effectively about the science of air pollution and human health;and of the CA-PHE Steering Committee to provide oversight for, and be actively engaged in, all aspects of the proposed research to action project. Specific Aim 2 : Identify pollutant sources associated with adverse health outcomes, and examine strategies to mitigate these outcomes. Strategies to be examined will include the use of vegetative buffers to reduce impacts from pollutant sources (e.g., industry, highways) to occupied areas (e.g., residences, schools), an innovative and broadly applicable approach with many co-benefits (e.g., noise reduction, thermal cooling, watershed protection, recreation). Specific Aim 3. Develop a multilevel, integrated and scientifically informed public health action plan designed to reduce pollutant exposures and to mitigate their adverse health effects. The plan will be developed collaboratively, engaging individuals with a wide range of expertise (e.g., community organizing, planning, policy, public health, business) to evaluate existing evidence and to develop recommendations for short-, mid- and long- term strategies that reduce air pollution exposure and its negative effects on health. Specific Aim 4 : Develop and implement campaigns, interventions and policies designed to promote the adoption and implementation of the public health action plan to reduce exposure and adverse effects on health. Efforts will be undertaken collaboratively by community, practice and academic partners, and designed to engage community residents, planners, community and business leaders, as well as public health and other local decision makers. Specific Aim 5 : Conduct process and outcome evaluation of the development of the public health action plan, assess the effectiveness and impact of campaigns, interventions and policies carried out as part of the implementation of that plan, and assess the factors that influence the success of these action strategies.